Michelle Obama’s final speech as First Lady

Tous les verbes irréguliers

abide abode abode demeurer
arise arose arisen s’élever, survenir
awake awoke awoken (se) réveiller
bear bore borne supporter
beat beat beaten battre
become became become devenir
begin began begun commencer
bend bent bent (se) courber
bet bet bet parier
bid bid bid offrir (un prix)
bind bound bound lier, relier
bite bit bitten mordre
bleed bled bled saigner
blow blew blown souffler
break broke broken casser
breed bred bred élever (du bétail)
bring brought brought apporter
build built built construire
burn burnt burnt brûler
burst burst burst éclater
buy bought bought acheter
cast cast cast jeter, lancer
catch caught caught attraper
choose chose chosen choisir
cling clung clung s’accrocher
come came come venir
cost cost cost coûter
creep crept crept ramper
cut cut cut couper
deal dealt dealt distribuer
dig dug dug creuser
do did done faire
draw drew drawn dessiner
dream dreamt dreamt rêver
drink drank drunk boire
drive drove driven conduire
dwell dwelt dwelt habiter
eat ate eaten manger
fall fell fallen tomber
feed fed fed nourrir
feel felt felt sentir, éprouver
fight fought fought combattre
find found found trouver
flee fled fled s’enfuir
fling flung flung jeter violemment
fly flew flown voler
forbid forbade forbidden interdire
forget forgot forgotten oublier
forgive forgave forgiven pardonner
freeze froze frozen geler
get got got obtenir
give gave given donner
go went gone aller
grind ground ground moudre
grow grew grown grandir
hang hung hung pendre, accrocher
have had had avoir
hear heard heard entendre
hide hid hidden (se) cacher
hit hit hit frapper, atteindre
hold held held tenir
hurt hurt hurt blesser
keep kept kept garder
kneel knelt knelt s’agenouiller
know knew known savoir, connaître
lay laid laid poser à plat
lead led led mener
lean leant leant s’appuyer
leap leapt leapt sauter
learn learnt learnt apprendre
leave left left laisser, quitter
lend lent lent prêter
let let let permettre, louer
lie lay lain être étendu
light lit lit allumer
lose lost lost perdre
make made made faire, fabriquer
mean meant meant signifier
meet met met (se) rencontrer
mow mowed mown tondre
overcome overcame overcome surmonter, vaincre
pay paid paid payer
put put put mettre
quit quit quit cesser (de)
read read read lire
rid rid rid débarrasser
ride rode ridden chevaucher
ring rang rung sonner
rise rose risen s’élever, se lever
run ran run courir
saw sawed sawn scier
say said said dire
see saw seen voir
seek sought sought chercher
sell sold sold vendre
send sent sent envoyer
set set set fixer
sew sewed sewn coudre
shake shook shaken secouer
shear sheared shorn tondre (des moutons)
shed shed shed verser (des larmes)
shine shone shone briller
shoe shod shod ferrer, chausser
shoot shot shot tirer
show showed shown montrer
shrink shrank shrunk rétrécir
shut shut shut fermer
sing sang sung chanter
sink sank sunk couler
sit sat sat être assis
sleep slept slept dormir
slide slid slid glisser
sling slung slung lancer (avec force)
slink slunk slunk aller furtivement
slit slit slit fendre, inciser
smell smelt smelt sentir (odorat)
sow sowed sown semer
speak spoke spoken parler
speed sped sped aller à toute vitesse
spell spelt spelt épeler
spend spent spent dépenser
spill spilt spilt renverser (un liquide)
spit spat spat cracher
split split split fendre
spoil spoilt spoilt gâcher, gâter
spread spread spread répandre
spring sprang sprung jaillir, bondir
stand stood stood être debout
steal stole stolen voler, dérober
stick stuck stuck coller
sting stung stung piquer
stink stank stunk puer
stride strode stridden marcher à grands pas
strike struck struck frapper
string strung strung enfiler, tendre (une corde)
strive strove striven s’efforcer
swear swore sworn jurer
sweep swept swept balayer
swell swelled swollen enfler
swim swam swum nager
swing swung swung se balancer
take took taken prendre
teach taught taught enseigner
tear tore torn déchirer
tell told told dire, raconter
think thought thought penser
throw threw thrown jeter
thrust thrust thrust enfoncer
tread trod trodden fouler aux pieds
undergo underwent undergone subir
understand understood understood comprendre
upset upset upset bouleverser
wake woke woken (se) réveiller
wear wore worn porter (des vêtements)
weave wove woven tisser
weep wept wept pleurer
win won won gagner
wind wound wound enrouler
withdraw withdrew withdrawn (se) retirer
wring wrung wrung tordre
write wrote written écrire

Verbes irréguliers (collège)

beat beat beaten battre
become became become devenir
begin began begun commencer
blow blew blown souffler
break broke broken casser
bring brought brought apporter
build built built construire
burn burnt burnt brûler
buy bought bought acheter
catch caught caught attraper
choose chose chosen choisir
come came come venir
cost cost cost coûter
cut cut cut couper
dig dug dug creuser
do did done faire
draw drew drawn dessiner
dream dreamt dreamt rêver
drink drank drunk boire
drive drove driven conduire
eat ate eaten manger
fall fell fallen tomber
feed fed fed nourrir
feel felt felt sentir, éprouver
fight fought fought combattre
find found found trouver
fly flew flown voler
forget forgot forgotten oublier
freeze froze frozen geler
get got got obtenir
give gave given donner
go went gone aller
grow grew grown grandir
have had had avoir
hear heard heard entendre
hide hid hidden (se) cacher
hit hit hit frapper, atteindre
hold held held tenir
hurt hurt hurt blesser
keep kept kept garder
know knew known savoir, connaître
learn learnt learnt apprendre
leave left left laisser, quitter
lend lent lent prêter
lose lost lost perdre
make made made faire, fabriquer
mean meant meant signifier
meet met met (se) rencontrer
mow mowed mown tondre
pay paid paid payer
put put put mettre
read read read lire
ride rode ridden chevaucher
ring rang rung sonner
rise rose risen s’élever, se lever
run ran run courir
say said said dire
see saw seen voir
sell sold sold vendre
send sent sent envoyer
shake shook shaken secouer
show showed shown montrer
sing sang sung chanter
sit sat sat être assis
sleep slept slept dormir
smell smelt smelt sentir (odorat)
speak spoke spoken parler
spend spent spent dépenser
stand stood stood être debout
steal stole stolen voler, dérober
swear swore sworn jurer
sweep swept swept balayer
swim swam swum nager
take took taken prendre
teach taught taught enseigner
tell told told dire, raconter
think thought thought penser
throw threw thrown jeter
understand understood understood comprendre
wake woke woken (se) réveiller
wear wore worn porter (des vêtements)
win won won gagner
write wrote written écrire

Boxing Day – the Day after Christmas

Boxing Day takes place on December 26th and is only celebrated in a few countries; mainly ones historically connected to the UK (such as Australia, South Africa and New Zealand) and in many European countries. In Germany it is known as « Zweite Feiertag” (which means ‘second celebration’)!

It was started in the UK about 800 years ago, during the Middle Ages. It was the day when the alms box, collection boxes for the poor often kept in churches, were traditionally opened so that the contents could be distributed to poor people. Some churches still open these boxes on Boxing Day.

It might have been the Romans that first brought this type of collecting box to the UK, but they used them to collect money for the betting games which they played during their winter celebrations!

The Christmas Carol, Good King Wenceslas, is set on Boxing Day and is about a King in the Middle Ages who brings food to a poor family.

It was also traditional that servants got the day off to celebrate Christmas with their families on Boxing Day. Before World War II, it was common for working people (such as milkmen and butchers) to travel round their delivery places and collect their Christmas box or tip. This tradition has now mostly stopped and any Christmas tips, given to people such as postal workers and newspaper delivery children, are not normally given or collected on Boxing Day.

Boxing Day has now become another public holiday in countries such as the UK, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. It is also the traditional day that Pantomimes started to play.

There are also often sports played on Boxing Day in the UK, especially horse racing and football matches! It’s also when shops traditionally had big sales after Christmas in the UK (like Black Friday in the USA).

The 26th December is also St. Stephen’s Day. Just to confuse things, there are two St. Stephens in history! The first St. Stephen was a very early follower of Jesus and was the first Christian Martyr (a person who dies for their religious beliefs). He was stoned to death by Jews who didn’t believe in Jesus.

The second St. Stephen was a Missionary, in Sweden, in the 800s. He loved all animals but particularly horses (perhaps why there is traditionally horse racing on boxing day). He was also a martyr and was killed by pagans in Sweden. In Germany there was a tradition that horses would be ridden around the inside of the church during the St. Stephen’s Day service!

St. Stephen’s Day (or ‘the feast of Stephen’) is when the Carol ‘Good King Wenceslas‘ is set. It’s about helping the poor – so it has a strong connection to Boxing Day.

24 Nov. => Thanksgiving

 

Thanksgiving is a very important American festivity and it is celebrated on the last Thursday of November.

However, schools and many shops and offices are closed for four days : Thursday, Friday, Saturday and Sunday.
Thanksgiving is a special day for families to be together and to thank God for all they have. Americans travel great distances to be with their families on this occasion.

Why is Thanksgiving such an important day ?
The tradition started with the pilgrims, the founders of America. The pilgrims left Great Britain in 1620 because of religious persecution. They wanted to start a new life in America and practise their religion in freedom.
One hundred men, women and children left Britain on a small ship called the Mayflower. Their sea voyage was very difficult. Many Pilgrims died during the voyage.
They arrived on the north-east coast of North America in December 1620 and found Plmayflowerymouth. The area was a wilderness. It was winter and they had no homes and little food. They immediately built small homes, but it was too late to cultivate crops. The winter was very cold and harsh. Almost half of the Pilgrims died because their living conditions were very bad.
The friendly Wampanoag Indians helped them during the long winter. In the spring the Pilgrims met an Indian called Squanto. He explained how to grow corn, hunt and live in the wilderness. Soon the Pilgrims and the Indians became good friends. The Pilgrims worked hard and cultivated crops. The summer harvest was excellent. By November 1621 everyone had food and a home. There was hope for the future.
Governor William Bradford, the Pilgrim leader, decided to celebrate with a dinner for the Pilgrims and the Indians. He wanted to give thanks to God.
Today the traditional Thanksgiving meal is similar to the first. People eat roast turkey, sweet potatoes, corn, cranberry sauce and pumpkin pie. Most families start the meal with a prayer.
The long Thanksgiving week-end is the perfect time to start Christmas shopping ! Big stores are open on Friday, Saturday and Sunday for the Christmas shoppers.

 

wilderness : land that is not cultivate
crops : food which are cultivated
harsh : hostile
harvest : récolte

Do you want to make an original dessert for Thanksgiving ?

Try the Pilgrim’s Apple Crumble, a recipe from long ago ! It’ s easy to make and delicious to eat.

Ingredients

250g of flour
150g of brown sugar
100g of butter (at room temperature)

To make the fruit mixture you need :

900g of sliced apples
2 tablespoons of brown sugar
1 cinnamon stick
1/4 cup of water

 

Make the crumble first. Put the flour into a bapple-crumbleowl. Add the butter and mix with your hands. When the mixture is crumbly, add the sugar and mix well. Then make the fruit filling. Put the sliced apples, sugar and cinnamon stick into a big saucepan. Add the water and cook until the apples are soft.

When the fruit is ready put into a non-stick pie dish and cover the fruit with the crumble. Put the pie dish into the oven (200°C) and bake the crumble for 30-40 minutes. Remember, the top must be light brown. Happy Thanksgiving !